Comparing and contrasting Islamic intellectual discourse with the western empirical sciences. Does critiquing the latter undercut the former? Here is part of an edited conversation I had on this topic, where I make a first attempt at distinguishing Islamic and scientific/naturalistic intellectual discourse and their respective rational-normative projects.

What kind of scientific evidence could override the apparent meaning of the text, i.e., Quran and hadith. This is a foundational question that virtually no one has addressed because the scholars who are qualified enough to originate principles of tafsir of this nature are typically not authoritative in the sciences and vice versa.